Andy Warhol’s studio, The Factory, is probably the most well-known and notorious artist studio in history. Night after night it was the host to all kinds of debauchery, all the while Warhol was in the background turning out his celebrated screen prints.
Warhol discovered a need for assistants in his studio soon after adopting screen printing as a primary medium; he was working on mass scale, sometimes in exceptionally large sizes. With the help of his assistants, the Factory earned its name. In the summer of 1964 Warhol created Flowers, a series of works that were produced at the rate of 80 prints a day, with the Factory turning out more than 900 prints in total in a variety of sizes.
Ugo Mulas (August 28, 1928 – March 2, 1973), Andy Warhol with ‘Flowers’ at The Factory, (1964).
The Factory was also a social spot, a clubhouse of sorts. Warhol’s life-long assistant, Gerard Malanga, also served as his social organiser who actively sought out the most beautiful and interesting people for Warhol. These people used The Factory as a hangout, interacting with each other and watching Warhol work. And while Warhol, famously antisocial despite his desire to be around people, worked in the background he would often involve his visitors, asking them for opinions on his choice of colour, or for their assistance with a print.
‘The Factory’ was a name coined by Warhol’s visitors
After all, it was first and foremost Warhol’s studio. But the amount of screen prints and films that were constantly being churned out of the space lead his endless stream of visitors to refer to it as the Factory, a name that has stuck.
But the Factory wasn’t just one studio
Across his career, Warhol occupied four studios, the latter three were each called The Factory. Beginning with 47th street, the name was carried to his following two at Union Square West and 33rd Street. The Factory was Warhol and his entourage of visitors and assistance, rather than the physical space in which they inhabited and worked.
Edie Sedgwick and Andy Warhol with (from left) Henry Geldzahler, Foo Foo Smith, and Gerald Malanga in New York City, (1965), photographed by Steve Schapiro.
Warhol’s second studio on 47th street was referred to as the Silver Factory
47th street was the most famous of his ‘factories’ primarily due to the décor. Billy Linich, hired by Warhol to design his studio, transformed the space into a world of silver. He covered the walls and ceiling arches in aluminium foil, spray painted every surface you can think of such as the toilet and the copy machine in silver and painted the floor silver. It was effectively a manifestation of the future and of the now, the world of industry that pervaded Warhol’s imagination.
Factory Panorama with Andy, (1966), Nat Finklestein
The Factory hosted Velvet Underground performances
Discovered by Malanga, Velvet Underground and Warhol formed a meaningful partnership – Warhol even becoming their manager. The Factory, a space for the hottest and most interesting people in New York to hang out, soon became even more socially relevant when held Velvet Underground rehearsals and performances. Warhol’s intimate experience with the band would lead him to create experiential works for their performances, including Exploding Plastic Inevitable.
Warhol was shot in the Factory
After riding up to the Factory with Warhol in the lift in 1987, Valerie Solanas, a regretful acquaintance of Warhol’s, nearly fatally shot him in the stomach. For the rest of his life Warhol would become paranoid of unwanted visitors, those who were once so warmly welcomed at the Factory. Moving to his final studio on 33rd Street, the Factory would now have a receptionist who screened visitors, transforming it from an uncontrollable social space into a much more sterilised place of business.